1 Diuretic use in incident ESRD
Hospitalizations in patients initiated on dialysis are common-especially in the first year- and are associated increased risk of death. What if a drug can address this burning issue?
According to this retrospective, database analysis of a large dialysis organization, the continuation of loop diuretics after hemodialysis initiation was associated with lower rates of hospitalization (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.93; 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98) and intradialytic hypotension (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.95; 95% CI 0.92 to 0.99) as well as lower interdialytic weight gain (P=0.03). No difference in the 1 yr mortality was observed (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.01)! Oh dear confidence interval, couldn’t you limit yourself to <1 here, like you did it for hospitalizations and hypotension? You just prevented a breakthrough in dialysis medicine that kidney doctors are longing for!
Confounding by indication (which can still exist even after sophisticated analysis you do for adjusting) is the major issue with data like this, where patients who are more likely to receive drug (diuretic here) are also the ones who are less likely to experience the adverse outcome that one plans to evaluate (hospitalizations, hypotension, and interdialytic weight gain) because they are inherently different. Why upon the earth one would put someone on diuretic when the last hyperfiltrating nephron has stopped making urine?
It won’t be a surprise if another such large database analysis shows the mortality benefit of diuretic; based upon the results, we need not start or stop prescribing diuretics to HD starters. One ml by the kidney is worth liters by machine!
2 Total versus subtotal parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism
Compared with parathyroidectomy (PTX) for primary hyperparathyroidism, the mortality and morbidity rates are higher in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Reviewed here by us before.
In a retrospective study of 824 patients in the Swedish Renal Registry, the outcome of the cardiovascular event (a composite outcome of acute myocardial infarction, transitory ischaemic attack, ischaemic or hemorrhagic stroke, ruptured aortic aneurysm, and acute limb ischemia) was a lower after subtotal parathyroidectomy (436 patients) compared with total parathyroidectomy (388 patients): adjusted HR of 0.43 (95% CI 0.25–0.72). The 90-day mortality was 2% both after subtotal parathyroidectomy and total parathyroidectomy.
The risk of re-PTX was higher after subtotal PTX compared with total PTX, with an adjusted HR (95 % CI) of 3.33 (1.33–8.32). There were no differences in the adjusted risk of hip fracture.
The paper does not describe the indications for which total v/s subtotal parathyroidectomy was done. We could assume that all these patients were refractory to medical management and the decision of subtotal v/s total PTX was based on the clinical or biochemical severity. Confounding by indication is the elephant in the room here. Clinical practices and surgical expertise vary widely making it difficult to extrapolate these results to day-to-day practice.
The only thing we know for sure in CKD-MBD literature is that we don’t know enough about CKD-MBD. While we can go on finding the optimum PTH target, the lower PTH level achieved by parathyroidectomy does not appear to help reduce cardiovascular mortality.
3 Zoledronic Acid to Prevent Bone Loss in the First Year after Kidney Transplantation
If you are one of those whose prescription of the post KTR patient is incomplete without a bisphosphonate, then here is a news for you. In an open-label, a single center trial evaluating the safety (risk of adynamic bone disease) and efficacy of zoledronic acid (effect on bone histomorphometry, DXA, HR-pQCT-this stands for high resolution peripheral quantitative CT, and bone biochemical measures like sclerostin, bone-specific ALP, tartarate resistant ALP -quite a list!). This probably will be the first RCT in this area and also first in CKD-MBD actually using bone biopsy.
Zoledronate didn’t increase the risk of ABD, and KTR itself decreased the bone turnover questioning the routine use of bisphosphonates in the contemporary immunosuppression era where steroids aren’t used in high doses and calcium+vitamin D use is a routine.
The study is limited by the small sample size and short follow up. Whether the promising effect of zoledronate on some surrogate bone markers and BMD at the peripheral skeleton (like radius, tibia where fractures after KTR are more likely than central skeleton) will become relevant after longer follow up remains to be seen.
If one is seriously considering bisphosphonate in KTR recipient with high fracture risk, zolendronate obviously scores over others in terms of cost and compliance.
4 APOL1 in non-African Americans
APOL1 risk allele is implicated in a higher prevalence of HTN, CKD, faster GFR decline and earlier onset ESRD among African-Americans. According to this NEJM letter reporting global frequencies of APOL1 risk variants among 111 populations in two large studies [the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology Study (https://pagestudy.org) and the Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (www.caapa-project .org)], this risk may not be restricted to the African -Americans as traditionally believed.
Authors found other populations with elevated frequencies, including Jamaican, Barbadian, Grenadian, and Brazilian from Salvador (>10 to 22%); Trinidadian, Panamanian, Honduran, Haitian, Garifunan, and Palenque (>5 to 10%); and Guyanese, Dominican, Peruvian, Belizean, and Native American (1 to 5%). These findings show that the risk alleles are present in populations of persons who are not typically screened, which may result in the underdiagnosis and undertreatment of kidney disease and related coexisting conditions.
5 Tweaking Nephrogenesis to Boost Nephron Number
What can be offered to patients with such elevated risk of kidney disease apart from a genetic diagnosis? This ‘Clinical Implications of Basic Research’ series article “Tackling Tsc1 to Promote Nephrogenesis” (I just love their graphic!), discusses exciting findings of basic research by Volovelsky et al.
Nephron number at birth is variable (200,000 to more than 2.5 million per kidney) and ‘lower nephron endowment’ is believed to be a nonmodifiable risk. 14 different cell types at ‘ureteric bud-mesenchymal niche interface’ regulated by various genes and growth factors make modulating the complex process of nephrogenesis difficult. Volovelsky et al in an interesting experiment in mice showed that it’s not impossible though.
They noted that deletion of both copies of Tsc gene (Tsc1 encodes for a protein hemartin which prolonged nephrogenesis in vitro), led to a lethal phenotype with markedly aberrant kidneys while deleting only one Tsc1 allele, they observed slightly prolonged nephrogenesis, which involved an increase in nephron progenitor cells within the niche and resulted in an increase of 25% in nephron endowment. Hamartin (and its downstream effectors) is a candidate target for experimental approaches to protecting at-risk infants and perhaps to treat- ing kidney disease in children and adults. Bravo! Waiting to see more.
Ibsen’s play An Enemy of the People was elegantly transported to India in his last movie Ganshatru (although not among the best of Satyajit Ray.) The film depicts Dr. Ashoke Gupta (Soumitra Chatterji) as an idealistic doctor working in a town near Calcutta who discovers that the water at a popular temple is the source of an outbreak of typhoid and hepatitis. In order to save lives, he risks his career by voicing the issue. His efforts are thwarted by a local group of building contractors. Here is an adaptation of Ganshatru for our readers:
The city engineer Intmed was in charge of the water supply and drainage. He was the master of his job and citizens were happy with his services. Occasionally, he used to call plumbing agency Corona, pumping company Cardio, and filter supplier Kidnee. Water was clean, citizens responsible, everything going fine.
For some strange reason, the city got afflicted with a curious habit: the habit of flushing greasy food into the drain water leading to blockade of the pipes and repeated breakdowns. Intmed warned citizens of this potential problem but his words fell on the dumb ears. Services of plumber Corona and pump Cardio were needed with increasing frequency, which led them to separate from Intmed’s City Engineering department and formation of separate agencies of their own-now no more in control of Intmed. Sometimes chronic stagnation of the contaminated water also started affecting filtration and clogging of filters was reported. Albus was a protein that used to start leaking as filters started getting damaged. Interruption of water supply due to filter clogging was actually a rare event, however as soon as Albus appeared in the water (filter suppliers educated citizens to check Albus in the water regularly to detect filter clogging early, however, neither citizens, not agencies were aware of how best to treat the clogged filters and which filters will ultimately need to be replaced). Intmed questioned this strategy of Albus testing and its relation with actual filter clogging but by now everyone including regulators had accepted Albus testing as a valid method to predict filter failures.
With a close watch on disruption in the city, 3 industrialist Jansyn, Astrazi, and Boingel claimed that they can address this burning issue without routinely requiring plumbing, pumping and filter agencies. They invented a bullet- Flozina that required to be fired into the water at the supply and claimed to address pipe blockades, pump failures, and clogged filters all at once-last one being most effectively addressed.
To convince authorities, they just needed to show that Albus level in the water has gone down and the flow rates past the filters are marginally better. Whether this would actually translate into prevention of filter failures is yet to be proven however this news that a bullet can save the city became viral after getting publicity in the leading newspapers Fancet, LEJM and others. Volumes are already been written (find the latest here) and many more are in making-praising the role of Flozina in restoring city’s messed up water supply system to order. Will Flozina be effective and safe? Will plumbers, and filter agencies go out of the job? Stay tuned for more to come.